Research and Professional Experience
A large part of my research applies the methods of occupational, environmental, and molecular epidemiology to studying the health effects of chemicals. Health effects of interest include those in the central nervous (e.g., cognitive function, brain structure), peripheral nervous, cardiovascular, and renal systems. My research has focused on the health effects of metals (e.g., organic lead, inorganic lead, mercury, cadmium) and various organic compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, hydrocarbon solvents). We are particularly interested in the importance of recent vs. lifetime cumulative dose, the timing of the dose during the lifespan and its relation to health effects, how these each contribute to acute, reversible health effects and chronic, likely irreversible health effects, and how chemicals interact with aging to influence health across the lifespan. The studies are also evaluating whether genetic polymorphisms interact with chemical exposures to modify disease risk, an evaluation of gene-environment interaction. We have used several biologic markers of chemical dose in studying health effects, including some health outcomes never before studied in relation to chemicals. We have recently found that cumulative lead dose, measuring lead concentration in bone with X-ray fluorescence, is associated with persistent structural lesions in the brain (i.e., smaller volumes of brain structures and increased prevalence and severity of white matter lesions), and these, in turn, are associated with progressive declines in cognitive function as people age.
I have become increasingly interested in the issue of global environmental sustainability, and how land use and energy use are contributing to global climate change, ecosystem degradation, and biodiversity and species losses, and ultimately, posing important risks to individual and population health. Much of this research is part of my work as Director of the Environmental Health Institute at the Geisinger Center for Health Research in Danville, PA. There we have ongoing or developing studies of the built environment and obesity, with particular emphasis on the land use, local food, local physical activity, and social environments; the public health impacts of Marcellus shale development in Pennsylvania; the community health effects of animal feeding operations, including the risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); the built environment, abandoned coal mine lands, and diabetes mellitus progression; the contribution of abandoned mine lands to community health and contextual effects; and evaluating the public health risks of energy scarcity and changing energy choices. As the co-director of the Program on Global Sustainability and Health, we are developing courses and research related to these areas.
Selected papers 2010 to 2013:
Feng J, Glass TA, Curriero FC, Stewart WF, Schwartz BS. The built environment and obesity: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence. Health & Place 2010; 16: 175-90.
Schwartz BS, Caffo B, Stewart WF, Hedlin H, James BD, Yousem D, Davatzikos C. Evaluation of cumulative lead dose and longitudinal changes in structural magnetic resonance imaging in former organolead workers. J Occup Environ Med 2010; 52: 407-14.
Swihart BJ, Caffo B, James BD, Strand M, Schwartz BS, Punjabi NM. Lasagna plots: a saucy alternative to spaghetti plots. Epidemiology 2010; 21: 621-5.
Lee BK, Glass TA, James BD, Bandeen-Roche K, Schwartz BS. Neighborhood psychosocial environment, apolipoprotein E genotype, and cognitive function in older adults. Arch Gen Psych 2011; 68: 314-21.
Weaver VM, Kim N-S, Jaar BG, Schwartz BS, Parsons PJ, Steuerwald AJ, Todd AC, Simon D, Lee B-K. Associations of low-level urine cadmium with kidney function in lead workers. Occ Environ Med 2011; 68: 250-6.
Frumkin H, Hess J, Parker CL, Schwartz BS. Peak petroleum: fuel for public health debate. Am J Public Health 2011; 101: 1542.
Schwartz BS, Parker CL, Hess J, Frumkin H. Public health and medicine in an age of energy scarcity: the case of petroleum. Am J Public Health 2011; 101: 1560-7.
Zipunnikov V, Caffo B, Yousem DM, Davatzikos C, Schwartz BS, Crainiceanu C. Functional principal component model for high-dimensional imaging. NeuroImage 2011; 58: 772-84.
Schwartz BS, Stewart WF, Godby S, Pollak J, DeWalle J, Larson SL, Mercer DG, Glass TA. Body mass index and the built and social environments in children and adolescents using electronic health records. Am J Prev Med 2011; 41: e17-28.
James BD, Caffo B, Stewart WF, Yousem D, Davatzikos C, Schwartz BS. Genetic risk factors for longitudinal changes in structural MRI in former organolead workers. J Aging Research 2011; Article ID 362189, 11 pages.
Weaver VM, Kim N-S, Lee B-K, Parsons PJ, Spector J, Fadrowski J, Jaar BG, Steuerwald AJ, Todd AC, Simon D, Schwartz BS. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C. Environ Research 2011; 111: 1236-42.
Zipunnikov V, Caffo B, Yousem DY, Davatzikos C, Schwartz BS, Crainiceanu C. Multilevel functional principal component analysis for high-dimensional data. J Comput Graph Stat 2011; 20: 852-873.
Schoenthaler AM, Schwartz BS, Wood C, Stewart WF. Patient and physician factors associated with adherence to diabetes medications. Diabetes Educator 2012; 38: 397-408.
Liu AY, Curriero FC, Glass TA, Stewart WF, Schwartz BS. Associations of the burden of coal abandoned mine lands with three dimensions of community context in Pennsylvania. ISRN Public Health 2012; Article ID 251201, 11 pages.
Shelley R, Kim NS, Parsons P, Lee BK, Jaar B, Fadrowski J, Agnew J, Matanoski GM, Schwartz BS, Steuerwald A, Todd A, Simon D, Weaver VM. Associations of multiple metals with kidney outcomes in lead workers. Occup Environ Med 2012; 2012; 69: 727–735.
James BD, Glass TA, Caffo B, Bobb JF, Davatzikos C, Yousem D, Schwartz BS. Association of social engagement with brain volumes assessed by structural MRI. J Aging Research 2012; Article ID 512714, 9 pages. doi:10.1155/2012/512714.
Casey JA, Cosgrove SE, Stewart WF, Pollak J, Schwartz BS. A population-based study of the epidemiology and clinical features of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in Pennsylvania 2001-2010. Epidemiology & Infection 2013; 141: 1166-79.
Tan BK, Chandra RK, Pollak J, Kato A, Conley DB, Peters AT, Grammer LC, Avila PC, Kern RC, Stewart WF, Schleimer RP, Schwartz BS. Incidence and associated premorbid diagnoses of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. J Allergy Clinical Immunol 2013; 131: 1350-60.
Liu AY, Curriero FC, Glass TA, Stewart WF, Schwartz BS. The contextual influence of coal abandoned mine lands in communities and type 2 diabetes in Pennsylvania. Health & Place 2013; 22: 115-122.
Casey JA, Curriero FC, Cosgrove SE, Nachman KE, Schwartz BS. High-density livestock operations, crop field application of manure, and risk of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in Pennsylvania. JAMA Intern Med 2013; 173: 1980-90.
Bobb JF, Schwartz BS, Davatzikos C, Caffo B. Cross-sectional and longitudinal association of body mass index and brain volume. Human Brain Mapping 2013; in press.
Rudolph KE, Glass TA, Crum RM, Schwartz BS. Neighborhood psychosocial hazards and binge drinking among late middle-aged adults. J Urban Health 2013; in press.
Shelley R, Kim NS, Parsons PJ, Lee BK, Agnew J, Jaar BG, Steuerwald AJ, Matanoski G, Fadrowski J, Schwartz BS, Todd AC, Simon D, Weaver VM. Uranium associations with kidney outcomes vary by urine concentration adjustment method. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2013; in press.
Tan BK, Kern RB, Schleimer RP, Schwartz BS. Chronic rhinosinusitis – the unrecognized epidemic [editorial]. AJRCCM 2013; in press.
Casey JA, Shopsin B, Cosgrove SE, Curriero FC, Nachman KE, Rose H, Schwartz BS. Molecular characterization of MRSA infection and association with high-density livestock production in Pennsylvania, USA. Environ Health Perspect 2013; in press.